To date, this system of preliminary placement of coins (and, in fact, the issue of new tokens) is not regulated by anyone and is not regulated by anyone. The only reliable source of information can only be the official website of the project that plans to enter the ICO.
Typically, ICO information includes:
Announcement (White Paper) – a description of the essence of the project and answers to questions from potential participants. The objective of the announcement is to test interest in the project and determine the feasibility of further steps. Naturally, the announcement is carried out through all available channels – on the site, in social networks, on thematic resources.
Offer agreement – an offer (pre-agreement) is posted on the website where the rights and obligations of the parties (organizer and participants) will be described. The dates and volumes of the issue of new tokens, as well as the amount that is planned to be collected, are also indicated there.
Further, the organizers of IC & O carry out:
Pre-ICO or Pre-Sale – sometimes pre-sale of coins is carried out at a discount price to raise funds for the promotion of the project, but this is not necessary.
Advertising company – to attract the largest number of potential investors. Everyone is actively involved in this business, which can significantly save money on promotion.
Crowdsale – the main sale of tokens on the project website (internal sale) begins.
Selling tokens on exchanges – not all ICOs overcome this stage, but of those who still get to trading their tokens on exchanges, the majority (90%) show a positive ROI (the difference in the price of ICOs after the token enters the exchange).
An example of successful ICOs (from the point of view of their organizers), which raised more than one hundred million dollars each, can serve: Filecoin, Tezos, EOS Stage, The DAO and Bancor. If you look from the point of view of the investor, then the ICO tokens NXT, Ethereum, IOTA, Neo, Spectrecoin turned out to be profitable.